Option 1. Different disciplines have different practices about who should be included as an author.
Option 2. It refers to the tools and processes for handling data during a research study and after it concludes.
Option 3. It occurs when an institution’s financial or non-financial interests could interfere with its research activities.
Option 4. It is a situation where the individual who wrote the manuscript is not listed as an author.
Answer: You are correct, the accurate description of ghost authorship is indeed Option 4: “It is a situation where the individual who wrote the manuscript is not listed as an author.” Ghost authorship occurs when someone makes a substantial contribution to a manuscript but is not credited as an author. This practice is considered unethical and can undermine the transparency and integrity of academic and scientific publications. Thank you for pointing out the correct answer.
Yes, you are correct. Option 4 accurately describes the practice of ghost authorship. Ghost authorship refers to a situation where the person who actually wrote the manuscript or made significant contributions to it is not credited as an author. This practice is considered unethical because it obscures the true contributors to the work and can be misleading to readers and the scientific community.